by David Fleischacker, Ph.D.
I have decided to return to an earlier sequence of blogs that are commentaries on Lonergan’s 1943 essay, “Finality, Love, and Marriage” — an essay which can be found in the 4th volume of his collected works. My objective is twofold; 1) to understand Lonergan’s intentions in the essay, 2) to examine what will happen to the essay in light of Lonergan’s later writings on Insight and Method in Theology.
This blog will examine a single paragraph in the essay — section 2.2 — titled “Tension and Contradictions.” I will start with a quote,
“But besides this multiplicity of aspects, to be verified in any instance of love, there also is a multiplicity of appetites and of loves generating within a single subject tensions and even contradictions.”
Section two of this essay as a whole is focused on the “concept of love.” In 2.1, Lonergan articulated how love is “the basic form” of all appetite, and how appetite is a principle that unites subjects both in seeking and enjoying a common end. In 2.2, the section we are considering in this blog, Lonergan brings up the simple fact that appetites are never single in the human subject. These multiple appetites have multiple ends that are loved and that unite subjects in both seeking and enjoying. But because of this multiplicity there are “tensions and even contradictions.”
If love is the basic form that unites subjects, why then does it cause tensions and contradictions. Let us begin the answer by starting with a more precise understanding of the multiplicity. Notice Lonergan’s three examples of appetite.
- maternal instinct
- rational appetite
The proper object of the first is “my goal” — more specifically nourishment of my body. The proper object of the second is the good of the child. The proper object of the third is the “reasonable good.” The way to these objects is specific as well, hence food for the first, care of the child for the second, and the discovery of the reasonable good for the third.
One can imagine that the appetite for my good, the appetite for the good of another, and then an appetite for what is absolute will find themselves in conflict some day if not every day. However Lonergan notes that the third appetite is the doorway to a liberation from this interior war. The third “moves on an absolute level to descend in favor of self or others as reason dictates.” (as a note, Newman says this in a number of his writings). Somehow, reason will discover and project a harmony in the multiplicity.
What happens in the later writings of Lonergan help to expand and fill out the way that reason transcends “on an absolute level” the tensions and contradictions, and can “descend” to set a harmonious order of human action in the multiplicity of appetites.
Insight and Appetite
In Insight, Lonergan seems to have the same notion of appetite operative even though he is heading into a transposition of faculty psychology into intentionality analysis. One sees this transposition in
- Lonergan’s formulation of image and affects via Freud and depth psychology.
- His linking of image and affect to neural demand functions.
- The linking of image, affect, and neural demand functions into patterns of experience.
- The three levels of human development that are interlocking higher and lower levels of integration and operation (organic development, psychic development, and intellectual development) — (chapter 15)
And this list is not exhaustive. These developments provide a glimpse into Lonergan’s deepening understanding of the nature of the levels and the relationships of the levels of being within the framework of the development of the human person. Lonergan does not yet use the language of horizon, but but he is using “view” and “viewpoint” which reminds one of Newman’s use of the terms (and a number of other figures over the previous century).
In Insight, the language about the mind itself is transposed into intentionality. Data of sense is combined with data of consciousness to provide the starting point for self-understanding and self-knowledge. With the clarification of the notion of being (chapter 12), which transposes the agent intellect–and the manifestation of that notion in questions for understanding and questions for reflection, concepts, and judgments–the nature of the mind itself is more directly reflected in the terms and relations. This in turn provides a basis to answer the most fundamental problems of modernity and post-modernity in their challenge to epistemology and metaphysics.
This shift to interiority analysis greatly expands upon Lonergan’s articulation of “reason.” Insight and Judgment constitute the acts which when rightly exercised are isomorphic with being. His explorations of insight in math, science, common sense, and philosophy provide a deeper understanding both of the harmony and unity of intelligence and reason. When he shifts to an explanatory account of epistemology and the general character of metaphysics in the second half of the book, he completes the circuit which allows one to discover not only the harmony of the mind, but the harmony of being within a framework of generalized emergent probability. This significantly expands what can be said about unity and plurality of appetites, and the contraditions they might generate, and why reason can objectively discover a unified order in the multiplicity of appetites.
Let me suggest the heuristic solution to discovering this harmony. In Insight, occurrences and events fall within the framework of systematic and non-systematic process, which is developed more precisely into schemes of recurrence, conditioned series of schemes, and at the height of generic intelligibility, emergent probability itself.
If one shifts from a mere multiplicity of occurrence (hence a statistical apprehension defined by classical correlates) to emergent process, then one begins to grasp a horizon-scape (land, water, sky) in which these appetites are naturally ordered. Hunger for example is within the nutritional cycles of the cells and cellular systems of the body. Eating is part of these systems in its sublation into the cultural mores of a people. The same is true of all appetites. They have their natural rhythms and cycles. These really do form a harmony within the context of generalized emergent probability, which incorporates even dead ends and catastrophes (see chapter 4 of Insight). But even dead ends and catastrophes do not involve a real conflict of appetites, even if a conflict of appetites can cause catastrophes. The gravest catastrophes result in death, and no one subject to death has an appetite for such an end.
Yet, to the casual observer, there does seem to be real conflicts. Are these objective? If so, how? The answer is yes. Ultimately for such a conflict of appetites to occur, there needs to be a free subject who can violate the intelligible order of emergent probability. Intentionality analysis reveals the culprit. It is the fallen spirit. The one who rejects the light of intelligibility, being, and the good. In other words, the subject who fails the dictates of seeking and finding understanding, truth, and value. Such failures of spirit (spirit = that which is intrinsically independent of the empirical residue) will result in a failure to descend to unite the multiplicity of appetites into their order within the emergent world. In turn, this failure will descend into the fabric of the polis and even the cosmos. That is a larger scope of tension and conflict however than we find in section 2.2. Yet, this larger expanse of being and the world that can be known by reason sheds some light on the source of the tensions and conflicts. Motor-sensory and intersubjective appetites will conflict when a wise order is privated. That natural and wise order is one of emergent probability.
Method in Theology and Appetites
In terms of Method in Theology, the tensions and contradictions of the appetites can be easily transposed into intentionality analysis. Every cognitional and moral operator and operation is both conscious and intentional. As conscious, these intellectual, rational, and volitional levels of operators and operations intrinsically allow the subject to be self-present, but not necessarily understood and known. As intentional, one can transpose the relationship of a specific appetite to a specific object. Hunger can be transposed into the intention of food, motherly care into the intention of the well being of the child, rational appetite into the intention of intelligibility and being. No conceptual revolution here.
Some areas of appetite are expanded in Method. Borrowing from Dietrich von Hildebrand, Lonergan constructs a simple generic map of affective appetites — non-intentional states and trends are organized under one column, intentional feelings under another (and these sort into those at the level of sensate experience–pleasure–and those at the level of decision–value). This generic pattern is further expanded when Lonergan focuses upon the intentional feelings that respond to value. In chapter two, he formulates the scale of values — vital, social, cultural, personal, and religious/transcendental. One can see the beginnings of this scale in 2.2, with the examples mentioned above. Hunger belongs to vital values, motherhood to intersubjective and social values (one could argue personal emerges as well), and rational appetite constitutes a type of cultural value (descriptive as well as explanatory). Both in Insight, and more so in Method, the scale is expanded in scope.
Arguably the most significant transpositions and expansions found in Insight and Method are the Transcendental Notions (only that of Being is explicitly formulated in Insight, and in Insight it is identified as a notion, which falls within the framework of heuristic notions which are components of heuristic structures). These notions are integrators of systems and operators of development. This shift to the transcendental notions allows Lonergan to recast a more developed understanding of the dialectic of human development. In Insight, that dialectic sprung from a tension of levels (eg. sensate and intellectual). In Method, is becomes more precisely articulated as a dialectic of authenticity and inauthenticity. To return to 2.2, the tension considered is on the same level, that of motor-sensory appetite and conflicts between these appetites. However, as the essay proceeds, Lonergan will move to a dialectic closer to that found in Insight, but not quite as precise.
The transition from this essay to Insight and Method will not in the end contradict or undermine the general arguments of the essay, but rather will strengthen the arguments as will be seen when we move to further sections. Lonergan’s later writings provide a more penetrating heuristic for understanding the general character and specific features of the nature and life of marriage.
Next commentary on this essay will be upon friendship — 2.3.